备份与恢复系列三,图文解决方法

2019-12-14 21:12 来源:未知

SQL2008无法附加数据库,提示“无法显示请求的对话框”(nColIndex实际值是-1)图文解决方法

一.概述

  前面讲了备份的一些理论知识,这篇开始讲在简单恢复模式下的备份与还原。在简单模式下是不能做日志备份的,发生灾难后,数据库最后一次备份之后做的数据修改将是全部丢失的,所以在生产环境下,数据又很重要,一般不建议使用这种模式。 例如对一个数据库有5次完整数据备份,时间是t5,  之后发生灾难,就会部丢失。

图片 1

  当数据库越来越大,完整备份时间会越来越长,为了减少丢失风险,引入差异备份。例如下图演示:在第一次建立数据库完整备份后,建立了三次差异备份,之后再建立完整备份,从而建立新的差异基准。不管是完整备份还是差异备份,一般只能在晚间进行。如果数据比较庞大又不允许长时间数据丢失,那简单恢复模式是不能满足的。

图片 2

SQL数据库面试题以及答案

Student(Sno,Sname,Sage,Ssex) 学生表       Sno:学号;Sname:学生姓名;Sage:学生年龄;Ssex:学生性别
Course(Cno,Cname,Tno) 课程表                    Cno,课程编号;Cname:课程名字;Tno:教师编号
SC(Sno,Cno,score) 成绩表                             Sno:学号;Cno,课程编号;score:成绩
Teacher(Tno,Tname) 教师表                        Tno:教师编号; Tname:教师名字

 

创建数据表:

create table Student(

Sno varchar(10) not null primary key,

Sname varchar(20) null,

Sage int null,

Ssex varchar(2) null

)

create table Course(

Cno varchar(10) not null primary key,

Cname varchar(20) null,

Tno varchar(20) null

)

create table SC(

Sno varchar(10) not null primary key,

Cno varchar(10) not null primary key,

score int null

)

create table Teacher(

Tno varchar(20) primary key not null,

Tname varchar(20) null

)

问题:
1、查询“001”课程比“002”课程成绩高的所有学生的学号;
  select a.Sno from (select Sno,score from SC where Cno='001') a,(select Sno,score
  from SC where Cno='002') b
  where a.score>b.score and a.Sno=b.Sno;
2、查询平均成绩大于60分的同学的学号和平均成绩;
    select Sno,avg(score)
    from sc
    group by Sno having avg(score) >60;
3、查询所有同学的学号、姓名、选课数、总成绩;
  select Student.Sno,Student.Sname,count(SC.Cno),sum(score)
  from Student left Outer join SC on Student.Sno=SC.Sno
  group by Student.Sno,Sname
4、查询姓“李”的老师的个数;
  select count(distinct(Tname))
  from Teacher
  where Tname like '李%';
5、查询没学过“叶平”老师课的同学的学号、姓名;
    select Student.Sno,Student.Sname
    from Student 
    where Sno not in (select distinct( SC.Sno) from SC,Course,Teacher where SC.Cno=Course.Cno and Teacher.Tno=Course.Tno  and Teacher.Tname='叶平');
6、查询学过“001”并且也学过编号“002”课程的同学的学号、姓名;
  select Student.Sno,Student.Sname from Student,SC where Student.Sno=SC.Sno and SC.Cno='001'and exists( Select * from SC as SC_2 where SC_2.Sno=SC.Sno and SC_2.Cno='002');
7、查询学过“叶平”老师所教的所有课的同学的学号、姓名;
  select Sno,Sname
  from Student
  where Sno in (select Sno from SC ,Course ,Teacher where SC.Cno=Course.Cno and Teacher.Tno=Course.Tno and Teacher.Tname='叶平' group by Sno having count(SC.Cno)=(select count(Cno) from Course,Teacher  where Teacher.Tno=Course.Tno and Tname='叶平'));
8、查询课程编号“002”的成绩比课程编号“001”课程低的所有同学的学号、姓名;
  Select Sno,Sname from (select Student.Sno,Student.Sname,score ,(select score from SC SC_2 where SC_2.Sno=Student.Sno and SC_2.Cno='002') score2
  from Student,SC where Student.Sno=SC.Sno and Cno='001') S_2 where score2 <score;
9、查询所有课程成绩小于60分的同学的学号、姓名;
  select Sno,Sname
  from Student
  where Sno not in (select Student.Sno from Student,SC where S.Sno=SC.Sno and score>60);
10、查询没有学全所有课的同学的学号、姓名;
    select Student.Sno,Student.Sname
    from Student,SC
    where Student.Sno=SC.Sno group by  Student.Sno,Student.Sname having count(Cno) <(select count(Cno) from Course);

11、查询至少有一门课与学号为“1001”的同学所学相同的同学的学号和姓名;
    select Sno,Sname from Student,SC where Student.Sno=SC.Sno and Cno in select Cno from SC where Sno='1001';
12、查询至少学过学号为“001”同学所有一门课的其他同学学号和姓名;
    select distinct SC.Sno,Sname
    from Student,SC
    where Student.Sno=SC.Sno and Cno in (select Cno from SC where Sno='001');
13、把“SC”表中“叶平”老师教的课的成绩都更改为此课程的平均成绩;
    update SC set score=(select avg(SC_2.score)
    from SC SC_2
    where SC_2.Cno=SC.Cno ) from Course,Teacher where Course.Cno=SC.Cno and Course.Tno=Teacher.Tno and Teacher.Tname='叶平');
14、查询和“1002”号的同学学习的课程完全相同的其他同学学号和姓名;
    select Sno from SC where Cno in (select Cno from SC where Sno='1002')
    group by Sno having count(*)=(select count(*) from SC where Sno='1002');
15、删除学习“叶平”老师课的SC表记录;
    Delect SC
    from course ,Teacher 
    where Course.Cno=SC.Cno and Course.Tno= Teacher.Tno and Tname='叶平';
16、向SC表中插入一些记录,这些记录要求符合以下条件:没有上过编号“003”课程的同学学号、2、
    号课的平均成绩;
    Insert SC select Sno,'002',(Select avg(score)
    from SC where Cno='002') from Student where Sno not in (Select Sno from SC where Cno='002');
17、按平均成绩从高到低显示所有学生的“数据库”、“企业管理”、“英语”三门的课程成绩,按如下形式显示: 学生ID,,数据库,企业管理,英语,有效课程数,有效平均分
    SELECT Sno as 学生ID
        ,(SELECT score FROM SC WHERE SC.Sno=t.Sno AND Cno='004') AS 数据库
        ,(SELECT score FROM SC WHERE SC.Sno=t.Sno AND Cno='001') AS 企业管理
        ,(SELECT score FROM SC WHERE SC.Sno=t.Sno AND Cno='006') AS 英语
        ,COUNT(*) AS 有效课程数, AVG(t.score) AS 平均成绩
    FROM SC AS t
    GROUP BY Sno
    ORDER BY avg(t.score) 
18、查询各科成绩最高和最低的分:以如下形式显示:课程ID,最高分,最低分
    SELECT L.Cno As 课程ID,L.score AS 最高分,R.score AS 最低分
    FROM SC L ,SC AS R
    WHERE L.Cno = R.Cno and
        L.score = (SELECT MAX(IL.score)
                      FROM SC AS IL,Student AS IM
                      WHERE L.Cno = IL.Cno and IM.Sno=IL.Sno
                      GROUP BY IL.Cno)
        AND
        R.Score = (SELECT MIN(IR.score)
                      FROM SC AS IR
                      WHERE R.Cno = IR.Cno
                  GROUP BY IR.Cno
                    );
19、按各科平均成绩从低到高和及格率的百分数从高到低顺序
    SELECT t.Cno AS 课程号,max(course.Cname)AS 课程名,isnull(AVG(score),0) AS 平均成绩
        ,100 * SUM(CASE WHEN  isnull(score,0)>=60 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/COUNT(*) AS 及格百分数
    FROM SC T,Course
    where t.Cno=course.Cno
    GROUP BY t.Cno
    ORDER BY 100 * SUM(CASE WHEN  isnull(score,0)>=60 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/COUNT(*) DESC
20、查询如下课程平均成绩和及格率的百分数(用"1行"显示): 企业管理(001),马克思(002),OO&UML (003),数据库(004)
    SELECT SUM(CASE WHEN Cno ='001' THEN score ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE Cno WHEN '001' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS 企业管理平均分
        ,100 * SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '001' AND score >= 60 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '001' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS 企业管理及格百分数
        ,SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '002' THEN score ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE Cno WHEN '002' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS 马克思平均分
        ,100 * SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '002' AND score >= 60 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '002' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS 马克思及格百分数
        ,SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '003' THEN score ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE Cno WHEN '003' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS UML平均分
        ,100 * SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '003' AND score >= 60 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '003' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS UML及格百分数
        ,SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '004' THEN score ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE Cno WHEN '004' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS 数据库平均分
        ,100 * SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '004' AND score >= 60 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/SUM(CASE WHEN Cno = '004' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS 数据库及格百分数
  FROM SC
21、查询不同老师所教不同课程平均分从高到低显示
  SELECT max(Z.Tno) AS 教师ID,MAX(Z.Tname) AS 教师姓名,C.Cno AS 课程ID,MAX(C.Cname) AS 课程名称,AVG(Score) AS 平均成绩
    FROM SC AS T,Course AS C ,Teacher AS Z
    where T.Cno=C.Cno and C.Tno=Z.Tno
  GROUP BY C.Cno
  ORDER BY AVG(Score) DESC
22、查询如下课程成绩第 3 名到第 6 名的学生成绩单:企业管理(001),马克思(002),UML (003),数据库(004)
    [学生ID],[学生姓名],企业管理,马克思,UML,数据库,平均成绩
    SELECT  DISTINCT top 3
      SC.Sno As 学生学号,
        Student.Sname AS 学生姓名 ,
      T1.score AS 企业管理,
      T2.score AS 马克思,
      T3.score AS UML,
      T4.score AS 数据库,
      ISNULL(T1.score,0) + ISNULL(T2.score,0) + ISNULL(T3.score,0) + ISNULL(T4.score,0) as 总分
      FROM Student,SC  LEFT JOIN SC AS T1
                      ON SC.Sno = T1.Sno AND T1.Cno = '001'
            LEFT JOIN SC AS T2
                      ON SC.Sno = T2.Sno AND T2.Cno = '002'
            LEFT JOIN SC AS T3
                      ON SC.Sno = T3.Sno AND T3.Cno = '003'
            LEFT JOIN SC AS T4
                      ON SC.Sno = T4.Sno AND T4.Cno = '004'
      WHERE student.Sno=SC.Sno and
      ISNULL(T1.score,0) + ISNULL(T2.score,0) + ISNULL(T3.score,0) + ISNULL(T4.score,0)
      NOT IN
      (SELECT
            DISTINCT
            TOP 15 WITH TIES
            ISNULL(T1.score,0) + ISNULL(T2.score,0) + ISNULL(T3.score,0)

  • ISNULL(T4.score,0)
          FROM sc
                LEFT JOIN sc AS T1
                          ON sc.Sno = T1.Sno AND T1.Cno = 'k1'
                LEFT JOIN sc AS T2
                          ON sc.Sno = T2.Sno AND T2.Cno = 'k2'
                LEFT JOIN sc AS T3
                          ON sc.Sno = T3.Sno AND T3.Cno = 'k3'
                LEFT JOIN sc AS T4
                          ON sc.Sno = T4.Sno AND T4.Cno = 'k4'
          ORDER BY ISNULL(T1.score,0) + ISNULL(T2.score,0) + ISNULL(T3.score,0) + ISNULL(T4.score,0) DESC);

23、统计列印各科成绩,各分数段人数:课程ID,课程名称,[100-85],[85-70],[70-60],[ <60]
    SELECT SC.Cno as 课程ID, Cname as 课程名称
        ,SUM(CASE WHEN score BETWEEN 85 AND 100 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS [100 - 85]
        ,SUM(CASE WHEN score BETWEEN 70 AND 85 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS [85 - 70]
        ,SUM(CASE WHEN score BETWEEN 60 AND 70 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS [70 - 60]
        ,SUM(CASE WHEN score < 60 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS [60 -]
    FROM SC,Course
    where SC.Cno=Course.Cno
    GROUP BY SC.Cno,Cname;

24、查询学生平均成绩及其名次
      SELECT 1+(SELECT COUNT( distinct 平均成绩)
              FROM (SELECT Sno,AVG(score) AS 平均成绩
                      FROM SC
                  GROUP BY Sno
                  ) AS T1
            WHERE 平均成绩 > T2.平均成绩) as 名次,
      Sno as 学生学号,平均成绩
    FROM (SELECT Sno,AVG(score) 平均成绩
            FROM SC
        GROUP BY Sno
        ) AS T2
    ORDER BY 平均成绩 desc;
 
25、查询各科成绩前三名的记录:(不考虑成绩并列情况)
      SELECT t1.Sno as 学生ID,t1.Cno as 课程ID,Score as 分数
      FROM SC t1
      WHERE score IN (SELECT TOP 3 score
              FROM SC
              WHERE t1.Cno= Cno
            ORDER BY score DESC
              )
      ORDER BY t1.Cno;
26、查询每门课程被选修的学生数
  select Cno,count(Sno) from sc group by Cno;
27、查询出只选修了一门课程的全部学生的学号和姓名
  select SC.Sno,Student.Sname,count(Cno) AS 选课数
  from SC ,Student
  where SC.Sno=Student.Sno group by SC.Sno ,Student.Sname having count(Cno)=1;
28、查询男生、女生人数
    Select count(Ssex) as 男生人数 from Student group by Ssex having Ssex='男';
    Select count(Ssex) as 女生人数 from Student group by Ssex having Ssex='女';
29、查询姓“张”的学生名单
    SELECT Sname FROM Student WHERE Sname like '张%';
30、查询同名同性学生名单,并统计同名人数
  select Sname,count(*) from Student group by Sname having  count(*)>1;;
31、1981年出生的学生名单(注:Student表中Sage列的类型是datetime)
    select Sname,  CONVERT(char (11),DATEPART(year,Sage)) as age
    from student
    where  CONVERT(char(11),DATEPART(year,Sage))='1981';
32、查询每门课程的平均成绩,结果按平均成绩升序排列,平均成绩相同时,按课程号降序排列
    Select Cno,Avg(score) from SC group by Cno order by Avg(score),Cno DESC ;
33、查询平均成绩大于85的所有学生的学号、姓名和平均成绩
    select Sname,SC.Sno ,avg(score)
    from Student,SC
    where Student.Sno=SC.Sno group by SC.Sno,Sname having    avg(score)>85;
34、查询课程名称为“数据库”,且分数低于60的学生姓名和分数
    Select Sname,isnull(score,0)
    from Student,SC,Course
    where SC.Sno=Student.Sno and SC.Cno=Course.Cno and  Course.Cname='数据库'and score <60;
35、查询所有学生的选课情况;
    SELECT SC.Sno,SC.Cno,Sname,Cname
    FROM SC,Student,Course
    where SC.Sno=Student.Sno and SC.Cno=Course.Cno ;
36、查询任何一门课程成绩在70分以上的姓名、课程名称和分数;
    SELECT  distinct student.Sno,student.Sname,SC.Cno,SC.score
    FROM student,Sc
    WHERE SC.score>=70 AND SC.Sno=student.Sno;
37、查询不及格的课程,并按课程号从大到小排列
    select Cno from sc where scor e <60 order by Cno ;
38、查询课程编号为003且课程成绩在80分以上的学生的学号和姓名;
    select SC.Sno,Student.Sname from SC,Student where SC.Sno=Student.Sno and Score>80 and Cno='003';
39、求选了课程的学生人数
    select count(*) from sc;
40、查询选修“叶平”老师所授课程的学生中,成绩最高的学生姓名及其成绩
    select Student.Sname,score
    from Student,SC,Course C,Teacher
    where Student.Sno=SC.Sno and SC.Cno=C.Cno and C.Tno=Teacher.Tno and Teacher.Tname='叶平' and SC.score=(select max(score)from SC where Cno=C.Cno );
41、查询各个课程及相应的选修人数
    select count(*) from sc group by Cno;
42、查询不同课程成绩相同的学生的学号、课程号、学生成绩
  select distinct  A.Sno,B.score from SC A  ,SC B where A.Score=B.Score and A.Cno <>B.Cno ;
43、查询每门功成绩最好的前两名
    SELECT t1.Sno as 学生ID,t1.Cno as 课程ID,Score as 分数
      FROM SC t1
      WHERE score IN (SELECT TOP 2 score
              FROM SC
              WHERE t1.Cno= Cno
            ORDER BY score DESC
              )
      ORDER BY t1.Cno;
44、统计每门课程的学生选修人数(超过10人的课程才统计)。要求输出课程号和选修人数,查询结果按人数降序排列,查询结果按人数降序排列,若人数相同,按课程号升序排列 
    select  Cno as 课程号,count(*) as 人数
    from  sc 
    group  by  Cno
    order  by  count(*) desc,Cno 
45、检索至少选修两门课程的学生学号
    select  Sno 
    from  sc 
    group  by  Sno
    having  count(*)  >  =  2
46、查询全部学生都选修的课程的课程号和课程名
    select  Cno,Cname 
    from  Course 
    where  Cno  in  (select  Cno  from  sc group  by  Cno) 
47、查询没学过“叶平”老师讲授的任一门课程的学生姓名
    select Sname from Student where Sno not in (select Sno from Course,Teacher,SC where Course.Tno=Teacher.Tno and SC.Cno=course.Cno and Tname='叶平');
48、查询两门以上不及格课程的同学的学号及其平均成绩
    select Sno,avg(isnull(score,0)) from SC where Sno in (select Sno from SC where score <60 group by Sno having count(*)>2)group by Sno;
49、检索“004”课程分数小于60,按分数降序排列的同学学号
    select Sno from SC where Cno='004'and score <60 order by score desc;

SQL2008无法附加数据库,提示“无法显示请求的对话框”(nColIndex实际值是-1)图文解决方法 

二.备份演示

  在简单恢复模式下主要的备份是完整备份和差异备份。我这里有TestLog库,库里有二个表。假设周日做一次完整备份,周一到周六晚上每天做一次差异备份,到第二周的周日时开始新的基准线。如下所示

use test
exec sp_addumpdevice 'disk', 'BackupTestDevice','F:SqlServicebackupBackupTestBackup.bak'

  图片 3

--设置恢复模式为简单恢复
 ALTER DATABASE TestLog SET RECOVERY simple
go
-- 做一次完整备份到备份设备中(备份基准) 假设在周日晚上
backup database  TestLog to BackupTestDevice
go

图片 4

go
--差异备份 周一晚
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 
go
--差异备份 周二晚
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 
go
--差异备份 周三晚
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 
go
--差异备份 周四晚
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 
go
--差异备份 周五晚
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 
go
--差异备份 周六晚
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 
go
--完整备份 周日晚(新基准)
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 
go
--差异备份 周一晚
backup database TestLog to BackupTestDevice with differential 

 在备份设备中查看备份集
  图片 5

-- 通过脚本查看

select distinct s.first_lsn,s.last_lsn,s.database_backup_lsn,s.position,
s.backup_finish_date,s.type,y.physical_device_name,s.backup_size
from msdb..backupset as s inner join
msdb..backupfile as f on f.backup_set_id=s.backup_set_id inner join
msdb..backupmediaset as m on s.media_set_id=m.media_set_id inner join
msdb..backupmediafamily as y on m.media_set_id=y.media_set_id
where s.database_name='TestLog'
order by s.position asc

图片 6

 

 

三. 还原演示

   将一个数据库还原,需要构造一个正确的还原顺序。在还原过程中,备份文件结尾使用norecovery事务不恢复(正在还原。。)不可读写,在最后一个备份文件结尾使用recovery事务恢复。数据库恢复正常。

-- 切换到master库
use master

--设置单用户模式(否则执行下面报错:“因为数据库正在使用,所以无法获得对数据库的独占访问权”)
ALTER DATABASE TestLog SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE

-- 从备份恢复一个全备份 ,norecovery(正在还原...)不可读写. file指备份集位置号
restore database TestLog from BackupTestDevice with file=1, norecovery 

  图片 7图片 8

-- 恢复到差异备份文件3,跳过差异备份2 ,看是否备份成功
restore database TestLog from BackupTestDevice  with file=3, recovery

  图片 9图片 10

-- 备份结束之后,结束单用户模式
ALTER  database  TestLog  set   online  

 下面在来演示还原差异文件,使用旧基准。还原看会怎么样

-- 从旧基准中恢复一个全备份 ,norecovery(正在还原...)不可读写. file是1
restore database TestLog from BackupTestDevice with file=1, norecovery 

--新基准file是8, 恢复到差异备份文件9 
restore database TestLog from BackupTestDevice  with file=9, recovery

图片 11

 

 总结:对于简单恢复模式,没有日志备份,恢复只需要一个完整数据库备份,以及最后一个差异备份。 对于多个差异备份文件,在还原时不需要LSN的连续性(在同一个基准内)。

 

今天,我在工作室换了一台电脑写Code,当我在附加数据库的时候,出现如下异常,折腾了半天,还是不行。于是我就重装SQL,重装之后还是不行。纠结了,当时我也忘记去google,傻傻的就把系统重装了(新机)。折腾差不多一天之后,系统、SQL、VS2010、补丁等等全都搞定之后,总算“大功告成了”,这个时候,我又跑去附加数据库。这回蛋疼了~~依然是失败。于是乎,有了这篇文章(好记性不如烂笔头):

 

出现错误 

 

 

 图片 12

 

这个是由于权限不足导致的,我们必须在【本地账号】的SQL中,新建一个【域帐号】的SQL用户,设置完成之后,还需要手动分配权限。详情如下:

 

解决方法

 

 图片 13

01、回到你系统的本地账号,然后登陆你的SQL,我这篇文章以登录(.)为例,如果你想登陆(.SQLEXPRESS),方法也一样,不做解释。

 

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